"Germany is the deadly enemy of Judaism and must be pursued with deadly hatred. The goal of Judaism today is: a merciless campaign against all German peoples and the complete destruction of the nation. We demand a complete blockade of trade, the importation of raw materials stopped and retaliation towards every German, woman and child."
—Professor A. Kulisher, a Jew, calling for the genocide of all Germans to be a priority of worldwide Jewry. 1937.
A Review of James Bacque's "Crimes and Mercies: The Fate of German Civilians Under Allied Occupation 1944-1950"
Reviewed by Eric Blair
Canadian historian James Bacque's new book, Crimes and Mercies, is a sequel to his 1989 work Other Losses. While the latter focused on the fate of millions of German POWs at the end of the Second World War, more than a million of whom the Allies deliberately left to die of a synergistic combination of disease, exposure, and starvation, his current book focuses largely on the grim, post-war fate of 60 million German civilians.
According to Bacque, given the extraordinarly harsh conditions imposed upon them by the Allies (i.e., the British, French, Soviets, and Americans), at least 9.3 million and possibly as many as 13.7 million Germans, had, by 1950, needlessly died as a result.
German boy scavenges for foodHe writes: "This is many more Germans than died in battle, air raids and concentration camps during the war. Millions of these people slowly starved to death in front of the victors' eyes every day for years."
Adding: "These deaths have never been honestly reported by either the Allies or the German government."
But it is the U.S. Treasury Secretary, Henry Morgenthau, Jr., who is the arch-villain of the piece, the one who hatched the serpent's egg: the vicious, vengeful Morgenthau Plan for the post-war "pastoralization" (read: the de-industrialization and abject subjugation) of the German people.
Devised, "cancelled," then implemented via the punitive directive JCS/1067, the Morgenthau Plan wreaked havoc on the German economy and, by extension, the fragile European economy.
Because of it, post-war reconstruction in Germany was delayed until late 1948; by which time millions of German civilians had already perished.
Foreword to "Crimes and Mercies"
The facts are so horrifying that they are hard to comprehend. The work I have done myself in The German Expellees and Nemesis at Potsdam revealed the horrifying statistics behind the mass expulsions of fifteen million Germans from the Eastern Provinces and the Sudetenland into the Occupied Zones in 1945-50. At least 2.1 million are known to have died. Chancellor Adenauer himself wrote in his memoirs that six million of them died. And the (West) German government under Adenauer in 1950 determined that 1.4 million prisoners of war had never returned to their homes.1 They are missing to this day. Bacque revealed what had happened to them in his book Other Losses (1989). And now he uncovers evidence that as many as five million Germans may have starved to death while under Allied government after the war. These figures are so shocking that he has sent the whole manuscript to a world famous epidemiologist, whom I met when he was working in Geneva as a special consultant to the World Health Organization. He is Dr Anthony B. Miller, Head of the Department of Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics at the University of Toronto. Miller has read the whole work, including the documents, and checked the statistics, which, he says, 'confirm the validity of [Bacque's] calculations and show that slightly more than five million deaths of German civilians occurred in Germany as a whole during the post-war period through to the census of 1950, over and above the reported deaths. These deaths appear to have resulted, directly or indirectly, from the semi-starvation food rations that were all that were available to the majority of the German population during this time period.'
After the fall of the communists, Bacque visited the KGB archives in Moscow where he found further evidence of the startling death figures in Other Losses. Those archives contain documents revealing some of the worst crimes of the twentieth century, committed by the Soviets. It is remarkable that such evidence was not immediately destroyed, but carefully preserved instead. As the Russian historian Dmitri Volkogonov has written in his book, Lenin: 'Lenin was not moved to halt the crime against men and women aged between fourteen and seventeen, and merely wrote "For the archives" on the document, thus establishing the tradition that no matter how callous, cruel and immoral an act of the regime might be, it would be recorded and stored in the archives for a history that would never be written as long as that regime lasted.' 2 Now Bacque has used those documents, along with others newly declassified in the Hoover Institute Archives in Stanford and the Library of Congress, to determine the fate of the majority of German civilians who were neither expellees nor prisoners of war. The most important of these papers belonged to a man I knew and admired, Robert Murphy, a sound, decent, warmhearted American who was the diplomatic representative of the US government attached to the American military government in Germany from 1945 onwards. Ambassador Murphy witnessed and deplored the vengeance inflicted on Germany under JCS 1067, the chief American directive on occupation policy pursuant to the purportedly abandoned Morgenthau Plan. In this section of the papers, which, so far as Bacque can determine, is published here for the first time, Murphy wrote in 1947 that 'owing to the present high death rate in Germany', the population would shrink by two million in the next two or three years. The evidence of that population shrinkage is clearly revealed in the two censuses of 1946 and 1950.